Chairs:
magdalena marinescu gava
rocharles fontanele

74: ULTRA-HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND OF MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS CORRELATES WITH ACR/EULAR CRITERIA: DATA FROM A COHORT OF SJÖGREN PATIENTS

R. Izzetti1, G. Fulvio2, C. Baldini2, M. Nisi1

1University of Pisa, Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, Pisa, Italy, 2University of Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa, Italy

Aim: To assess the correspondence between minor salivary glands ultra-high frequency ultrasonography and the criteria for primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) diagnosis established by the American College of Rheumatologists/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR).

Material and Methods: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pSS were enrolled. Diagnosis was performed through rheumatologic assessment, glandular functional tests, blood testing for anti-Ro(SSA) antibodies, conventional ultrasonography of major salivary glands, ultra-high frequency ultrasonography (70 MHz) of minor salivary glands, and minor salivary glands biopsy for the assessment of Focus Score. Ultrasound scans of major and minor salivary glands were evaluated with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) scoring system, classifying glandular echostructure from normal (score 0) to absence of normal glandular parenchyma with glandular fibrosis and diffuse hypoechoic areas (score 3).

Results: In total 268 patients (91.8% females, mean age 55.07 years, SD 13.86) were enrolled. Minor salivary glands ultrasonography showed positive correlation with histology, positive anti-Ro(SSA) antibodies and unstimulated salivary flow rate. Minor salivary glands alteration on ultrasonography corresponded to pSS diagnosis according to ACR/EULAR criteria (p<0.05). The estimated sensitivity for OMERACT scoring system of minor salivary glands was 97.3%, while the specificity was 90.8%.

Conclusion: Minor salivary glands ultrasonography could improve the diagnostic performance in pSS patients and is a predictor for Focus Score estimation and antibodies positivity. The high correspondence with histology gives insight on a rethinking of the necessity to perform minor salivary gland biopsy routinely and holds the promise to integrate and improve pSS evaluation and diagnostic work-up.

173: TOP CITED ARTICLES IN ORAL RADIOLOGY: A BIBLIOMETRIC NETWORK ANALYSIS

A. Delantoni1, A. Fardi1, T. Lillis1

1Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dentoalveolar Surgery, Implant Surgery and Radiology, Thessaloniki, Greece

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to identify and analyze the 100 top-cited articles published in oral radiology journals, describe basic bibliometric indicators and analyze current research trends.

Materials and Methods: Web of Science was used to conduct a comprehensive search from inception until 22 November 2023 in dental radiology. Basic information of the 100 top-cited articles was recorded. Biblioshiny, the web interface for Bibliomterix, and VOSviewer tools were employed for conducting thematic map as well as author keyword, title, and abstract terms analysis in order to elucidate the research trends. Elsevier Scopus database was also used for citation comparisons.

Results: The total citation count for the 101 most-cited articles ranged from 105-587. The majority of them were original research studies with observational design conducted in diagnosis, dose, geometric measurements and image analysis topics. Cone beam computed tomography was the most studied radiologic technique as author keyword co-occurrence analysis revealed and appeared as basic theme for transdisciplinary research field’s development. While making infant steps, artificial intelligence was adequately represented in top cited list, as it received increasing citation numbers in very few years, concentrating the highest citation densities.

Conclusions: Bibliometric analysis of the most affecting publications in oral radiology depicts the science’s evolution, enhances the understanding of scientific research progress and provides dental clinicians an auxiliary guide for educational and training purposes.

41: TEACH ME SOME RADIATION PHYSICS – LARGE LANGUAGE MODELS AS TEACHING ASSISTANTS IN ORAL RADIOLOGY

G. Torgersen1

1University of Oslo/Institute of Clinical Dentistry, Maxillofacial Radiology, Oslo, Norway

Aim: To develop Large language models (LLM) that can serve as a personal teaching assistant fluent in the Norwegian language within the fields of radiation physics, biology, protection, and radiological technology. The model would give up-to-date knowledge on local radiation protection regulations and relevant clinical and technological aspects while enhancing students’ comprehension and engagement with the material.

Materials and methods: We created a database of more than 6000 question/answer pairs relevant to the curriculum for dentist and dental hygienist students in Norway. Specially instructed LLMs were used for creating the data. We fine-tuned the Meta Llama 2 model, which was one of the most advanced open-source models with acceptable knowledge of the Norwegian language on this data. We also used the database as source for a retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) approach to align foundation models with the learning outcomes.

Results: None of the approaches has yet resulted in an acceptable outcome. Different approaches, challenges and shortcomings will be presented and discussed.

Conclusion: Further research on how to align models with the pedagogical and professional requirements is needed. The project is ongoing and efforts on further enhancement of fine-tuning and improvement of the RAG approach to align the models will be reported.

47: EFFECTIVENESS OF PERIAPICAL RADIOGRAPHY TRAINING KIT FOR DENTAL UNDERGRADUATES: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

A. Ahmad Fauzi1, N.A. Md Ashar1, I. Kamal1, S.S. Kamar1

1Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Dentistry, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Rejected periapical radiographs among dental undergraduates are commonly caused by misplacement of the radiographic armamentarium. Proper positioning of the radiographic armamentarium through supervision by a dental radiographer is a way to improve radiographic taking among dental undergraduates. However, the number of trained staff to provide continuous training among dental students in radiographic taking is usually inadequate in most dental institutions, including UKM. To overcome this problem, a periapical radiography training kit (PRTK) is potentially useful as a self-directed learning aid to improve periapical radiographic skill among dental students. This study is aimed to determine the effectiveness of the PRTK and demonstration videos in radiographic taking among dental undergraduates. This type of study is an experimental (parallel group design) to compare the rejection rate between a group of students who are exposed to the radiography training kit (trial group) and a group of students who are not exposed to the intervention (control group). This study involved a convenient sampling of 10 students within the clinical year (Year 4 and Year 5) who had at least one rejected radiograph at undergraduates‘ polyclinics from March until July 2022. Results showed the mean rank of the radiograph rejection rate in the trial group was lesser than the control group, following the intervention period. In addition, there is a statistically significant difference between the means of radiograph rejection rate before and after exposure to the PRTK (p-value < 0.05). In conclusion, PRTK is an efficient tool to facilitate dental undergraduates in improving their radiographic skills.

99: DOES THE USE OF CENTRING RINGS CHANGE THE NUMBER OF RETAKES OR FREQUENCY AND SIZE OF CONE CUTS IN INTRAORAL IMAGES PERFORMED BY DENTAL STUDENTS?

L.H. Matzen1, L. Schropp1

1Aarhus University, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus, Denmark

Aim: To assess whether use of centring rings for intraoral radiographic imaging (OI) reduce number of retakes or frequency and size of cone cuts in OI performed by dental students.

Material and Methods: Seventy-three dental students were randomly allocated to either test or control group before training OI on a phantom. Both groups used phosphor plate holders for periapical imaging (PA) of anterior and posterior teeth and for bitewings (BW). Additionally, the test group used dedicated centring rings mounted to the holder (Kerr, Hawe, USA). After phantom training, the students performed OI in 127 patients. Before patient examination, number of planned PA and BW were calculated. After patient examination, number of retakes in percentage was calculated in addition to frequency and size of cone cuts. Differences between the two groups were tested: number of retakes and size of cone cuts (Mann-Whitney U test), frequency of cone cuts (Chi2 test).

Results: The test group performed 920 OI and the control 835. The number of BW retakes was significantly lower in the test group (P=0.014) whereas, there was no difference in PA retakes (P=0.37) between groups. Frequency of cone cuts was lower in the test group for both PA and BW (P<0.001). Size of cone cuts was lower in the test group although this was not significant (P>0.20).

Conclusion: In general, it seems beneficial to use centring rings for dental students when learning to perform OI since the number of retakes was reduced together with the frequency and size of cone cuts.